KSN MEDICAL DICTIONARY

A

 

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acetabulum

 

the cup-shaped cavity on the lateral surface of the hip bone; receiving the head of the femur

agenesis

 

absence of an organ or body part due to it not appearing in the embryo

allele

 

one or two or more alternative forms of a gene at the same site in a chromosome, which determine alternative characters in inheritance

amblyopia

 

dimness of vision not due to organic defect or refractive errors

anemia

 

reduction below normal of the number of erythrocytes (red blood cells), the quantity of hemoglobin, or the volume of packed red cells in the blood

anencophaly

 

congenital absence of the cranial vault, with the cerebral hemispheres completely missing or reduced to small masses

anomaly

 

marked deviation from normal; abnormal

anorectum

 

the distal portion of the digestive tract, including the entire anal canal and the distal 2 cm of the rectum

anteverted

 

tipped or bent forward

aorta

 

the great artery arising from the left ventricle

aortic valve

 

the valve that guards the entrance to the aorta from the left ventricle

apnea

 

temporary cessation of breathing

arachnoid

 

the dilcate membrane interposed between the dura mater and the pia mater, and with them constituting the meninges (see meninges)

areola

 

the darkened area surrounding the nipple of the mammary gland

arrhythmia

 

variation from the normal rhythm, especially of the heartbeat

ascites

 

abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen

asphyxia

 

deficiency of oxygen and increase of carbon dioxide in blood

aspiration

 

the act of inhaling vomitus or mucus into the respiratory tract

asthma

 

a condition marked by recurrent attacks of dyspnea, with wheezing due to spasmodic constriction of the bronchi

astigmatism

 

is a vision condition that occurs when the front surface of the eye, the cornea, is slightly irregular in shape; this irregular shape prevents light from focusing properly on the retina which may cause blurred vision at all distances

asymmetry

 

dissimilarity in corresponding parts or organs on opposite sides of the body which are normally alike

ataxia

 

irregularity of muscular action

atresia

 

congenital absence or closure of a normal body

atrium

 

a chamber affording entrance, especially the upper chamber on either side of the heart, transmitting to the ventricle of the same side blood received (left atruim) from the pulmonary veins and (right atrium) from the venae cavae

atrophy

 

decrease in size

atypical

 

irregular; not conformable to the type

auricle

 

the flap of the ear

autoimmune disease

 

diseases due to immunologic action of one's own cells or antibodies on components of the body

B

 

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bicuspid valve

 

the valve between the left atrium and left ventricle (mitral valve)

bifid

 

cleft into two parts or branches

bilateral

 

pertaining to both sides

biliary

 

pertaining to the bile, to the bile ducts, or to the gallbladder

blepharoptosis

 

drooping of an eyelid; ptosis

brachydactyly

 

abnormal shortness of fingers

brachymesophalangy

 

abnormal shortness of bones in fingers

bronchiectasis

 

chronic dilatation of the bronchi and bronchioles with secondary infection, usually involving the lower lobes of the lung

Burkitts lymphoma

 

a form of malignant lymphoma (tumor)

C

 

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café au lait macule

 

pigmented macules of a distinctive light brown color, like coffee with milk; as in neurofibromatosis and Albright's syndrome

canthus

 

the angular junction of the eyelids at either corner of the eyes

cardinal

 

chief, main

caries

 

cavities

cataract

 

opacity (not transparent) of the lens of the eyes or its capsule (the connective tissue enveloping the posterior eyeball)

cerebral

 

brain

chalazion

 

a small eyelid cyst

cheiloplasty

 

surgical repair of a lip defect

chordee

 

downward deflection of the penis

choroid

 

the middle vascular coat of the eye

chromosome

 

a structure in the nucleus of each cell in the body, containing DNA which transmits genetic information (see also gene)

cleft palate

 

congenital fissure or split of the roof of the mouth

clindactyly

 

permanent deviation or turning aside of finger

clonic

 

when muscles contract and relax alternately, producing rythmic movements

club foot

 

a deformity in which the foot is twisted out of normal position

coarctation

 

narrowing

colobomata

 

an absence or defect of ocular tissue

columella (nasal)

 

the fleshy external termination of the septum of the nose

conductive deafness

 

sound vibrations are interrupted in the outer or middle ear before they reach the nerve endings of the inner ear; infections of middle ear can cause damage

congenital

 

present at and existing from the time of birth

conjunctiva

 

the delicate membrane lining the eyelids and covering the eyeball

connective tissue

 

a fibrous type of body tissue with varied functions. The connective tissue system supports and connects internal organs, forms bones and the walls of blood vessels, attaches muscles to bones, and replaces tissues of other types following injury

consanguinity

 

blood relationship

cornea

 

the clear, transparent anterior covering of the eye

coronal

 

a crown or encircling structure

corpus callosum

 

an arched mass of white matter in the longtitudinal fissure, and made up of transverse fibers connecting the cerebral (brain) hemispheres

cortical

 

pertaining to the outer layer of an organ

coryza

 

profuse discharge from the mucous membrane of the nose

coxa valga

 

deformity of the hip joint

cranial sutures

 

the lines of junction between the bones of the skull

craniosynostosis

 

premature closure of the cranial sutures

cranium

 

the skeleton of the head

cryptorchidism

 

failure of one or both of the testes to descend into the scrotum

cubitus

 

the elbow

cuboid

 

bones in feet

cutaneous

 

pertaining to the skin

cyst

 

a closed sac or capsule containing a liquid or semisolid substance

cyanotic

 

a bluish discoloration of the skin due to a decrease in oxygen in the blood

cytogenetics

 

the branch of genetics devoted to the cellular constituents concerned in heredity ex. chromosomes

D

 

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delineating

 

describing

dermal

 

pertaining to the skin

dermataglyphics

 

the study of the patterns of ridges of the skin of the fingers

dextroversion

 

location of the heart in the right chest, the left ventricle remaining in the normal position on the left, byt lying anterior to the right ventricle

diabetes insipidus

 

a deficiency of the hormone vasopressin which leads to a metabolic disorder causing excessive thirst and the passage of large amounts of urine with no excess of sugar

diaphragmatic hernia

 

protrusion of some of the contents of the abdomen through an opening in the diaphragm into the chest cavity

digit

 

finger or toe

distal

 

farther away from a point of reference such as center, midline, or the point of attachment

distention

 

stretched out or enlarged

dorsal

 

directed toward or situated on the back surface

double elevator palsy

 

both elevator muscles of one eye are weak, with resultant inability or reduced ability to elevate the eye and a hypotropia in the primary position

ductus arteriosus

 

a fetal blood vessel that joins the aorta and pulmonary artery (usually closes shortly before birth)

dysarthria

 

imperfect articulation of speech due to disturbances of muscular control

dysgenesis

 

defective development; malformation

dyslexia

 

impairment of ability to comrehend written language

dysmorphism

 

different features

dysplastic(dysplasias)

 

abnormal development ex. size or shape

dyspnea

 

labored or difficult breathing

dyspraxia

 

partial loss of ability to perform coordinated movements

dystopia

 

malposition; displacement

E

 

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ecchymosis

 

a hemorrhagic spot, larger than a petechia, forming a nonelevated, round or irregular, blue or purplish patch

echocardiography

 

a type of ultrasound of the heart

ectopy

 

displacement or malposition, esp. if congenital

ectropion

 

turning outward (eversion) of the margin of an eyelid

effusion

 

escape of a fluid into a part

electrolyte

 

a substance that dissociates into ions when fused or in solution, thus becoming capable of conducting electricity; within the body, the electrolytes play an essential role in the workings of the cell and in maintaining fluid balnce and a normal acid-base balance

emesis

 

vomitting

encephalocele

 

hernial protrusion of brain substance through a congenital or traumatic opening of the skull

endocrine

 

pertaining to internal secretions; hormonal

enterocolitis

 

inflammation of the small intestine and colon

epiblepharon

 

a developmental anomaly in which a horizontal fold of skin stretches across the border of the eyelid; on the lower lid it may press the lashes againstthe eyeball

epicanthus

 

a vertical fold of skin on either side of the nose

epiphysis

 

the end of a long bone

Epstein-Barr virus

 

(EBV); a herpesvirus that is the agent of infectious mononucleosis and Burkitts lymphoma

erythroblastosis

 

the presence of erythroblasts (immature red blood cells) in the circulating blood

erythroblastosis fetalis

 

a condition which develops in the fetus due to an incompatibility between the mother's blood type (RH factor) and the baby's; maternal antibodies, which enter the fetal circulation during delivery attack the baby's red blood cells leading to hemolysis (rupture of the cells)

erythrocyte

 

a red blood cell, or corpuscle; one of the formed elements in blood

esotropia

 

convergent strabismus (see strabismus)

etiology

 

the science dealing with causes of disease

eventration

 

elevation of the diaphragm into the thoracic cavity

eversion

 

turning inside out

exogenous

 

originating outside or caused by factors outside the organism

exotropia

 

strabismus in which there is permanent deviation of the visual axis of one eye away from that of the other, resulting in diplopia (double vision); called also divergent strabismus

F

 

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facies

 

the expression or appearance of the face

febrile

 

fever

fenestration

 

the act of perforating or the condition of being perforated

fissure

 

a narrow slit or cleft

fistula

 

any abnormal, tubelike passage within body tissue, usually between two internal organs, or leading from an internal organ to the body surface

follicle

 

a sac or pouchlike depresssion or cavity

FSH

 

follicle stimulating hormone; one of the gonadotropic hormones that stimlates the development of the ovary and testes

fusion

 

the abnormal coherence of adjacent parts or bodies

G

 

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gamma globulin

 

a plasma protein developed in the lymphoid tissues in responde to bacteria, viruses and toxins

gavage

 

tube feeding; especially through a tube passed into the stomach

gena valga

 

knock-knee

gene

 

one of the biologic units of heredity, located at a definite position (locus) on a particular chromosome; genes make up segments of the complex DNA molecule that controls cellular reproduction and function; there are thousands of genes in the chromosomes of each cell nucleus

gestation

 

the period of development from the time of fertilization to birth

GH

 

growth hormone; secreted by the pituitary gland

gonad

 

a sex gland; ovary and testes

gonadotropin

 

a hormone released by the pituitary gland; stimulates the development of gonads (ovary or testes)

gonalgia

 

pain in the knee

gynaecomastia

 

excessive development of breasts in males

H

 

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havicular

 

bone in feet

HCG

 

human chorionic gonadotropin; used in treatment of underdevelopment of the gonads since it causes the secretion of terstosterone

helix

 

the superior and posterior free margin of the pinna of the ear

hemangioma

 

a benign tumor made up of newly formed blood vessels, clustered together, often forming a reddish or purplish birthmark

hemarthrosis

 

blood in a joint cavity

hematuria

 

the discharge of blood in the urine

hemoglobin

 

the oxygen-carrying pigment of the blood; the principal protein in the erythrocyte; the pigment in hemoglobin gives blood its red color

hemolysis

 

rupture of erythrocytes (red blood cells) with release of hemoglobin into the plasma

hernia

 

the abnormal protrusion of part of an organ or tissue through the structures normally containing it. A weak spot or other abnormal opening in a body wall permits part of the organ to bulge through

heterozygosity

 

the state of having different alleles in regard to a given character (see allele)

hirsutism

 

abnormal hairiness

horseshoe kidneys

 

a congenital anomaly where the right and left kidneys are connected at the lower poles

humoral

 

any fluid or semi-fluid in the body

hydramnios

 

excess of amniotic fluid (fluid that fetus floats in)

hydrocephalus

 

a condition characterized by enlargement of the cranium cased by abnormal accumulation of cerbrospinal fluid; called also water on the brain

hydronephrosis

 

distention of the renal pelvis and calices with urine

hydrops

 

abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the tissues or in a body cavity; called also dropsy

hydrops fetalis

 

accumulation of fluid in the entire body of the newborn infant, in erythroblastosis fetalis

hyparrhythmia

 

decreased heart rate

hyperphosphatasemia

 

an excess of phosphates in the blood

hypertelorism

 

abnormally increased distance between two organs or parts

hypertrichosis

 

excessive hairiness

hypertrophy

 

increase in volume of a tissue or organ produced entirely by enlargement of existing cells

hypo

 

abnormally decreased; deficient

hypoglycemia

 

decrease blood sugar

hypophyseal

 

pertaining to the hypophysis (pituitary gland)

hypoplasia

 

incomplete development

hypospadias

 

a developmental anomaly in the male in which the urethra opens on the under side of the penis or on the perineum

hypothalmus

 

a portion of the brain lying at the base of the brain; some of its many functions include: regulates temperature of body, influences the production of pituitary hormones, influences many involuntary actions such as gastrointestinal motility & secretion,

hypotonic

 

decrease tone or muscle strength

I

 

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icterus

 

jaundice

idiopathic

 

self-originated; occurring without known cause

immunoglobulin

 

a protein with known antibody activity (IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM)

imperforate

 

not open

incisors

 

any of eight front teeth (four on top, four on bottom)

inguinal

 

pertaining to the groin

intravenous pyelogram

 

an x-ray of kidney using an injection of dye

isthmus

 

a narrow connection between two larger bodies or parts

ITP

 

idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

J

 

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jaundice

 

yellowness of skin, sclerae and excretions due to an excess of bilirubin and bile pigments in the blood; is a symptom of a number of different diseases and disorders of the liver, gallbladder or blood

juxta-

 

near

K

 

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karyotype

 

the chromosomal constitution of the cell nucleus

keratoplasty

 

plastic surgery of the cornea

kyphosis

 

abnormal curvature of the thoracic spine, also called hunchback

L

 

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lacrimal

 

pertaining to tears

laryngo

 

referring to the larynx

larynx

 

the muscular and cartilaginous structure, lined with mucous membrane, situated at the top of the trachea and below the root of the tongue; contains the vocal cords; is part of the respiratory system as air passes through the larynx as it travels to and from the lungs

lateral

 

pertaining to a side

lentectomy

 

incision of the lens of the eye

leukocytes

 

blood corpuscles whose chief function is to protect the body against microorganisms that cause disease

leukocytopenia

 

(leukopenia), reduction in number of leukocytes in blood

lipomatosis

 

a condition characterized by abnormal localized, or tumor-like, accumulations of fat in the tissues

locus

 

place; site; in genetics, the specific site of a gene on a chromosome

Long QT syndrome

 

an abnormality of the heart electrical system due to defects in heart muscle cell structures called ion channels; predisposes affected persons to a very fast heart rhythm (arrhythmia)

lordosis

 

foreward curvature of the lumbar spine

luteinizing hormone

 

a hormone released by the pituitary gland; causes ovulation in females and secretion of testosterone in males

M

 

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macula

 

a discolored spot on the skin that is not raised above the surface

malacia

 

morbid softening or softness of a part or tissue

malar

 

the cheek or cheek bone

malocclusion

 

misplacement of teeth resulting in the faulty meeting of the teeth or jaws

mandible

 

the bone forming the lower jaw

maxilla

 

the bones that form the upper jaw

median

 

situated in the midline of body or structure

megaureter

 

enlargement of the ureter

meninges

 

the three membranes covering the brain and spinal cord: the dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater

menorrhagia

 

excessive menstruation

mesentery

 

a membranous fold attaching various organs to the body wall

metabolism

 

the sum total of the physical and chemical processes and reactions taking place among the ions, atoms and molecules of the body. Essentially these processes are concerned with the disposition of the nutrients absorbed into the blood following digestion

metacarpals

 

the bones between wrist and fingers

metacarpophalangeal

 

bones in hands and fingers

metopic

 

pertaining to the forehead

micro

 

small

microcephaly

 

small head compared to rest of body

microcornea

 

abnormal smallness of the cornea

micrognathia

 

abnormal smallness of the jaws

micropthalmia

 

abnormal smallness of the eyeballs

monosomy

 

the presence of only one chromosome in a body cell (instead of the usual two)

myocardium

 

the middle and thickest layer of the heart wall, composed of cardiac muscle

myopathy

 

any disease of a muscle

myopia

 

near sightedness

myringotomy

 

surgical incision of the ear drum to relieve pressure and provide for drainage in an infection of the middle ear

N

 

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nasal

 

pertaining to the nose

necrosis

 

death of individual cells or groups of cells, or of localized areas of tissue

neural tube defects

 

encompass a spectrum of malformations of the cranium, spine and nervous system that includes anencephaly, spina bifida and encephalocele

neuropathy

 

any functional disturbances in the peripheral (not brain or spinal cord) nervous system

nevus

 

mole

nucha

 

the nape or back of the neck

nystagmus

 

involuntary, rapid, rhythmic movement of the eyeball (can be horizontal, vertical or rotary movements)

O

 

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occult

 

obscure or hidden from veiw

ocular

 

pertaining to the eye

oedematous(edema)

 

an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the intercellular spaces of the body

oligodontia

 

congenital absence of some of the teeth

oligohydramnios

 

deficiency in the amount of amniotic fluid

oligophrenia

 

mental deficiency

opacities

 

neither translucent nor transparent

opthalmia

 

severe inflammation of the eye or of the conjunctiva or deeper structures of the eye

opthalmoplegia

 

paralysis of eyes

orchidopexy

 

plastic surgery of testes

osseous

 

of the nature or quality of bone; bony

osteoporosis

 

reduced amount of bone tissue, which in turn causes the bones to become fragile and to break more easily

otitis

 

ear infection

P

 

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palpable

 

perceptible by touch

palpebral fissures

 

the longitudinal opening between the eyelids (the length between outer corner to inner corner of the eye)

palsy

 

paralysis

parenchymal

 

pertaining to the essential or functional elements of the organ

patella

 

kneecap

patent

 

open, unobstructed, not closed

pathogenesis

 

the cellular events and reactions and other pathologic mechanisms ocurring in the development of disease

pathology

 

that branch of medicine treating of the essential nature of disease, especially of the changes in body tissues and organs which cause or are caused by disease

pectus excavatum

 

a congenital malformation of the chest wall characterized by a pronounced funnel-shaped depression; also called funnel chest

pedigree

 

line of ancestors

perforation

 

a hole or break in the containing walls or membranes of an organ or structure of the body; occurs when erosion, infection, or other factors create a weak spot in the organ and internal pressure causes a rupture

perinatal

 

relating to the period shortly before and after birth

perineum

 

the pelvic floor and associated structures occupying the pelvic outlet; the lower portion of the trunk of the body, forming a basin

peroneal

 

pertaining to the fibula (one of the lower leg bones)

pes valgus

 

flat footed

petechia

 

a minute, non raised, perfectly round, purplish red spot caused by hemorrhage, which later turns blue or yellow

phalanges

 

bones in fingers (or toes)

pharynx

 

throat

phenotype

 

the outward, visible expression

philately

 

the collection and study of postage and imprinted stamps

philtrum

 

the vertical groove in the median portion of the upper lip

phosphates

 

function as buffer salts to maintain acid-base balance in blood and other body fluids

phthisis bulbi

 

shrinkage of the eyeball

pinna

 

the flap of the ear

pituitary gland

 

the master gland of the endocrine system; controls hormone production of other endocrine glands; this pea sized gland lies at the base of the brain

plagiocephaly

 

bizarre distortion of the shape of the skull resulting from irregular closure of the cranial sutures

plantar

 

pertaining to the sole of the foot

plasma

 

the fluid portion of the blood in which corpuscles (ex. red blood cells, white blood cells) are suspended

platelets

 

(thrombocytes); blood elements that adhere to damaged surfaces; principally concerned with coagulation of blood

poliosis

 

premature grayness of the hair

polycythaemia

 

increase in the total cell mass in blood

polyglandular

 

pertaining to or affecting several glands

polyglandular autoimmune disease

 

autoimmune disorders occur when the immune system confuses normal body tissue, "self", with a foreign intruder, and attacks it

polyhydramnios

 

excess of amniotic fluid

polymicrogyria

 

an anomaly of the brain (due to abnormal migration of neurons to the cortex or post migrational damage); may involve the wole brain, but usually parts of the brain; can be cause of mental retardation or seizures

portal

 

pertaining to an entrance

posterior

 

directed toward or situated at the back

pre

 

in front of, before

preauricular pit

 

an indentation in front of the auricle of the ear

precocious puberty

 

early puberty

prone

 

lying face downward, or on the ventral surface

proptosis

 

foreward displacement or bulging, esp. of the eye

pseudo

 

appearing like, but not actually it, false

ptosis

 

paralytic drooping of the upper eye lid

pulmonary

 

pertaining to the lungs, or to the pulmonary artery

pulmonary lymphangiectasia

 

dilation of pulmonary/lymphatic vessels

pyelostomy

 

the operation of forming an opening in the renal pelvis for the purpose of temporarily diverting the urine from the ureter

Q

 

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R

 

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reactive airway disease

 

catch-all diagnosis to describe many illnesses that cause a child to wheeze; asthma is one type of reactive airways disease

redundant

 

exceeding what is normal

reflux

 

backwards flow

renal

 

pertaining to the kidney

retrognathia

 

underdevelopment of the maxilla and/or mandible

S

 

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sacrum

 

the triangular-shaped bone at the base of the spine

sclera

 

white outer coat of the eyeball

scoliosis

 

curvature of the spine

septum

 

a wall or partition dividing a body space or cavity

serous

 

pertaining to serum; thin and watery, like serum

serum

 

the clear portion of any animal or plant fluid that remains after the solid elements have been separated out

sinus

 

a recess, cavity or channel

sinusitus

 

inflammation of one or more of the parnasal sinuses

somatic

 

pertaining to or characteristic of the body

spina bifida

 

is a fault in the spinal column in which one or more vertebrae (the bones which form the backbone) fail to form properly, leaving a gap or split; it may be so extensive as to allow herniation of the spinal cord and meninges, or it may be covered by intact skin and evident only on radiologic examination

stenosis

 

narrowing or contraction of a body passage or opening

strabismus

 

when one or both of your eyes turns in, out, up or down; poor eye muscle control usually causes crossed-eyes

stridor

 

a shrill, harsh sound, especially the respitatory sound heard during inspiration in laryngeal obstruction

subclavian

 

below the clavicle

subluxation

 

incomplete or partial dislocation

sulci

 

groove

superior

 

situated above, or directed upward

syndactyly

 

webbing between fingers (cutanecus meaning skin)

sykinesis

 

an unintentional movement accompanying an intentional movement

synostosis

 

normal or abnormal union of two bones by osseous material

systemic

 

pertaining to or affecting the body as a whole

T

 

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tachypnea

 

very rapid respirations

tarsal

 

seven bones in foot (includes navicular and cuboid bones)

teratogenic

 

a physical defect in the developing embryo caused by an outside agent (ex. medicine)

tethered spinal cord

 

a group of complicated developmental malformations of the spinal cord; in general what all of these conditions have in common is a tugging of the spinal cord at the base of the spinal canal; as children grow, their spinal cords do not grow as quickly as their spinal columns so relatively the spinal cord must be able to freely ascend on the inside of the spinal column during growth; if various abnormal structures are holding onto the spinal cord from below it stretches the spinal cord and this can lead to progressive loss of function

tetralogy of Fallot

 

a congenital defect of the heart that combines four structural anomalies: pulmonary stenosis (narrowing of the pulmonary artery); ventricular septal defect, or abnormal opening between the right and left ventricles; dextroposition (displacement to the rig

thelarche

 

beginning of development of the breast at puberty

thoracic

 

pertaining to the chest

thrombocytopenia

 

decrease in number of platelets in blood

thrombocytopenic purpura

 

a hemorrhagic disease that causes bruises and small red patches on the skin

tonic

 

when all muscles tighten until person becomes rigid

tracheomalacia

 

softening of the tracheal cartilages

transposition of great vessels

 

a congenital heart defect, in which the position of the chief blood vessels of the heart is reversed

transverse

 

extending from side to side

trapezoid

 

irregualr, four-sided

tricuspid valve

 

the valve between the right atrium and right ventricle

trigonocephaly

 

triangular shape of the head due to sharp forward angulation at the midline of the frontal bone

trisomy

 

the presence of an additional (third) chromnosome in a body cell (instead of the usual two)

TSH

 

thyroid-stimulating hormone

Turner syndrome

 

a syndrome characterized by retarded growth and sexual development, webbing of the neck, low posterior hair line margin and other deformities; it is associated with absence or structural abnormality of the scond sex chromosome

tympanic membrane

 

a thin membrane separating the middle ear from the outer ear; the eardrum

U

 

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urethra

 

the tubular passage through which urine is discharged from the bladder to the exterior of the body

uvulva

 

the small fleshy mass hanging from the soft palate above the root of the tongue

V

 

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valgus

 

bent outward

varus

 

bent inward

vasopressin

 

a hormone released by the pituitary; it constricts blood vessels

velopalantine

 

soft palate

velopharyngeal

 

pertaining to the velum palatinum (soft palate) and pharynx

veloplasty

 

plastic surgery of soft palate

ventral

 

directed toward or situated on the belly surface

ventricle

 

a small cavity or chamber, as in the brain or heart

ventricular septal defect

 

a congenital heart defect in which there is persistent patency of the ventricular septum. The defect permits flow of blood directly from one ventricle to the other, resulting in bypassing of the pulmonary circulation and producing varying degrees of cyano

vertebrae

 

any of the separate sections that make up the spine

visceral

 

organs

vitiligo

 

a condition in which destruction of melanocytes (pigment of skin) results in patches of depigmentation often having a hyperpigmented border, and often enlargening slowly

vulgaris

 

ordinary, common

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Wolf Parkinson White Syndrome

 

in WPW an extra electrical pathway exists between the atria and the ventricles, this extra pathway may at times encourage a rapid heart rhythm